Dating the books of the bible

So how and why did such a pastoral-agrarian society come to write down and give authority to the written word?

How and why did writing spread from the closed circles of royal and priestly scribes to the lay classes?

Despite this, we can be fairly confident that it was composed in the early to mid-60s.

Here’s are a few ways that scholars are able to reach that conclusion: One of the most helpful indicators for dating Acts in this time frame actually comes from what the text does not say.

The moving bands of Sabaeans and Chaldeans (Job , 17) matches the early second millennium B. Their basic motive in attempting to elicit from Job a confession of sin was to establish their own sense of security.

Solomon’s age was a peaceful one and thus particularly interested in wisdom’s approach to the deepest, practical problems of life (e.g., Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Proverbs) c. While the above arguments are plausible, they are not determinative; as Archer writes, “most of the ... In the Talmud: Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations 2. The foreign locale would also account for the comparative rarity of the name Yahweh in most chapters of the book. A Survey of Old Testament Introduction, 465), but Taylor writes, Daniel alone is unknown from the Bible. We must suppose either that this early Semitic literature was known to later Hebrew generations or, more likely, that ancient Hebrew traditions which have not survived incorporated material centered around a character of the same name and similar character to the Ugaritic Dan'el (John B. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries [Downers Grove: Inter Varsity Press, 1969], 129). A high view of biblical inspiration requires one to take into consideration the literary genre of a book in order to understand how it ought to be interpreted (A Survey of the Old Testament, 263-64). Although the book unquestionably contains discussion and information that would be invaluable to the exiles (especially the idea that God's wisdom is the basis on which his justice may be vindicated), the scenario in Job seems too unlike Israel of the sixth century to invite too close a correlation. See also La Sor, Hubbard, and Bush, Old Testament Survey, 562, 572-82.

In some cases, the date of the writing of a text or book of the Bible may not be all that important.

For example, we are not at all certain of the date of the writing of the Book of Job.

The prophecies of Isaiah, for example, are said to be “history,” rather than prophecy., I began with a different question than scholars usually ask. This question began to haunt me more and more as I studied the archeology of ancient Palestine and the early history of Hebrew writing.Scholars agree that early Israel was an oral society of pastoralism and subsistence farming. Ones understanding of Date (below) contributes to one’s understanding of the author C. But the style of Job is not really Mosaic; Moses uses the name of Yahweh often whereas Job uses other names, Job uses Arabic words unlike Moses, Moses would not have been familiar with Arabic customs, opinions, and manners D. The date of the book leans toward a patriarchal age 2. The offering of sacrifice by the head of the family rather than a priest reflects a time before the Exodus c. Support for an early second millennium date of Job as a contemporary with the patriarchs: a. This helps support the accuracy of the conversations between Job and his friends; but this is not necessary since portions of Genesis were accurately transmitted by mouth until Moses wrote them down c. Except for Theodore of Mopsuestia of the Antiochian school (A. 350-428) the book of Job has not been questioned with respect to its canonicity 1. An Akkadian monologue entitled “Ludlul bel Nemeqi” (“I will praise the lord of Wisdom” dating to the end of the second millennium B. Interestingly enough, the title Shaddai, the Almighty, occurs no less than thirty-one times in Job as against its sixteen occurrences in the rest of the Old Testament. The likelihood is that this is the 'Dan'el' of the ancient Canaanite epic discovered in 1930 at Ras Shamra, the ancient Ugarit, on the north Syrian coast, and dating form about 1400 B. Ultimately he was granted a happier life than ever, to the glory of Marduk, the god of Babylon. C., and may rest upon materials even earlier (Gleason L. See Archer's discussion where he allows for the form of the book to express the sense of what happened without insisting that it be a verbatim account of the words of the characters (Gleason L. This answer is given against the background of the limited concepts of Job's three comforters, Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar. Rabbinic tradition does not attempt to identify an author other than suggesting that the writer must have preceded Moses B. The Aramaic tone in some of the terms and modes of expression in the text 2. The patriarchal family-clan organization reflects the time of Abraham rather than after the Exodus b. features above mentioned are reconcilable with an earlier date as well, particularly if the account was composed by a non-Israelite author on non-Israelite soil” 3. In the LXX: Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Job 3. In the Council of Trent and Most English Bibles: Job, Psalms, Proverbs 5. In Kittel’s Biblica Hebraica (3rd edition) and Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: Psalms, Job, Proverbs B. Job shows a distinct preference for the pan-Semitic term, 'Eloah or 'Elohim, for God ... He can hardly be Ezekiel's contemporary in exile: in any case the word used here is 'Dani'el' and not 'Daniyye'l' as in the book of that name. Archer writes, This is the story of a righteous man who underwent the bitterest agony of body and spirit, even though he was conscious of having lived an upright life, and nevertheless remained steadfast in the midst of his affliction. Archer writes, We may conclude therefore that there is no convincing evidence for either denying or insisting upon a pre-Mosaic date of composition (A Survey of Old Testament Introduction, 466) Likewise Hill and Walton write, There are no real problems with this view, though it must be recognized that the evidence is scant (A Survey of the Old Testament, 264). Most obviously, the book is insistent on Job's absolute innocence and vindicates him in the end. Undoubtedly, however, the minority who were righteous in Israel may well have taken solace and found comfort in the teachings of the book of Job (Andrew E. Walton, A Survey of the Old Testament, 268; see also La Sor, Hubbard, and Bush, Old Testament Survey, 561-62). Archer writes, God's thoughts and ways are moved by considerations too vast for the puny mind of man to comprehend, since man is unable to see the issues of life with the breadth and vision of the Almighty; nevertheless God really knows what is best for His own glory and for our ultimate good. Ps 37), and it is also possible that Jeremiah borrowed from Job to express his themes of suffering and, “the fact that Uz is mentioned in Jeremiah is hardly of pivotal significance unless it can be proved by other evidence that the name had not arisen until the age of Jeremiah or else was unknown to the Hebrews before his time” 1) The book is understood to be legend and a depiction of the imprisonment and eventual release of king Jehoiachin But Jehoiachin was not a righteous men and was not ever restored to his kingdom prior to his death 2) Although the problems of suffering was severe for the nation at the time of the exile, the exile was not the only time the nation suffered, and again the suffering in the book is personal rather than national 6.


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