Archaeologists have long debated the nature of the society that created such spectacular buildings.
Some have argued that the Chaco Phenomenon was a totally egalitarian society without any rulers at all, while others have gone as far as to say it was a fully fledged state level society or kingdom.
Each flute is identified by the numbering assigned originally by Pepper: Location: Northeast corner of Room 33. Finishing: elaborate black, orange, and green decoration with gum coating. Several working replicas of two of the Pueblo Bonito flutes were crafted by Jonathan Walpole in early 2012 ([Walpole 2012] ).
Four finger holes, average interval 6.1 cm (2.40″), each 6 mm in diameter. In a personal communication on February 2, 2012, Jonathan describes his work and makes some conjectures about the significance of the tuning of these flutes: I have made working replicas of two of the flutes found at Pueblo Bonito — specifically H-4559 and H-4560 which were two of the complete specimens.
Simpson was accompanied by Carravahal, a guide from San Juan Pueblo. Putnam, led the first archaeological expedition to excavate the ruins of Pueblo Bonito. Finishing: carved figure of a mountain lion in relief. “From the space between the note-openings, it would seem that a small portion is missing.” Material: cottonwood-root. Average outside diameter is 4.2 cm, tapering down at the head end and increasing toward the foot end. One additional flute is shown in [Pepper 1920] that is not mentioned in [Pepper 1909] , this “wooden flute” shown on page 279 in Figure 122.
Chaco Canyon is in Chaco Culture National Historical Park in present-day New Mexico. Dimensions: nearly complete flute is 108 cm (1 meter, 8 cm) long.
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The expedition briefly examined eight of the larger ruins in Chaco Canyon, including the location named by Carravahal as “Pueblo Bonito” (“ From 1896 through 1900, George H. A room in the Northwestern part of Pueblo Bonito was found to contain eight wood flutes and other ceremonial objects, and was given the designation “Room 33” by Pepper ([Pepper 1909] ). Finger holes 2 to 4 are preserved — 4.1 cm between holes 2–3 and holes 3–4. Holes are not perfectly round — they are longer on the median line of the flute. This “flageolet of extraordinary size” was described in [Pepper 1909] , page 217 but the identifying number was not provided. Finishing: no decorations on the surface, nor has the surface been carefully smoothed. The bore is 1.8 cm in diameter at the mouth end, 2.5 cm at hole 3, and nearly 3.5 cm at the foot end. It is listed as number 7270: It is listed as one of two flutes found in Room 85 ([Pepper 1920] , page 369). In summarizing these flutes, Pepper writes ([Pepper 1909] , page 250): To students of Pueblo life, the flageolets are undoubtedly the most interesting specimens.Children ages 2 or older are required to purchase an air seat for all travel.For Travel within the United States and Puerto Rico: If infant will be traveling as a Lap Child, arrangements can be made upon arrival at the airport. Birth Certificate or Passport) is required for all infants and children at time of airport check-in.However, recent radiocarbon dating on two of the burials in Room 33 (AMNH H3671 and AMNH H3672) determined the dates of both of these burials to be 690–944 CE ([Coltrain 2007] , page 306). Students of Pueblo rites and societies assert that the Flute clan is a very old one; and as the flutes used in the Hopi ceremonials of the present time are similar to those found in room 33, it may be that the type has been handed down from the early days; nor would it be surprising to find that the Flute societies had their beginning in the Chaco region, as many of the clan migrations have been traced from this group to their present home in the province of Tusayan in Arizona.Here is a summary of the information on these flutes, collected from various sources, including [Pepper 1909] and [Pepper 1920] . Dimensions: complete flute is 51.5 cm long, 2.5 cm diameter at the foot end tapering to 1.5 cm diameter at the head end. According to [Payne 1989], page 20 ¶1, these flutes are now in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History in New York, but I have not been able to locate them, as yet.Kennett, leader of the study and professor of anthropology at Penn State.